Programming in the Medium

Personal Experience

I was not alone.

“The major cause is that the machines have become several orders of magnitude more powerful! To put it quite bluntly: as long as there were no machines, programming was no problem at all; when we had a few weak computers, programming became a mild problem, and now we have gigantic computers, programming has become an equally gigantic problem.”
Dijkstra, “The Humble Programmer”, 1972

The Software Crisis

“I now suggest that we confine ourselves to the design and implementation of intellectually manageable programs.”
Dijkstra, “The Humble Programmer”, 1972


Prototype Mindset

“Software is the only engineering discipline which builds prototypes and sells them as products.”

Product Mindset




Email me at
Writings and slides at